• Butyrate C4H8O2 is a short-chain fatty acid important to the health of the gut microbiome and can induce cell growth inhibition in (colon) cancer cells.
  • anti-inflammatory {refrefref}
  • immunomodulator {ref}
  • preferentially induces apoptosis in glycolytic cells {ref}
  • prevents anaerobic glycolysis and promotes normal oxidative glycolysis (epigenetically)
  • is an HDAC inhibitor πŸ›ˆ
  • modulator of redox signaling {ref}
  • reduces endotoxin levels {refref}
  • reduces plasma glucose {ref}
  • inhibits the growth of E. coli {ref}
  • restoring butyrate intestinal levels mitigate clinical and pathological features of C. difficile {ref}

⚡ Synergy

  • Artemisinin {study}
  • Vitamin A (cod liver oil, carrot)
  • Vitamin D {study/study}
  • Aloe Vera
  • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)
  • Curcumin
  • Quercetin
  • Acetylcarnitine {ref}

⮏ Potential antagonistic interactions

  • A low-carb, high-fat (or high-protein) diet may reduce butyrate production

Supplements and pharmaceutical drugs: Tributyrin (Butycaps) {ref}, Sodium/Calcium/Potassium/Magnesium Butyrate, Intrinsa Genoma Nutritionals (contains magnesium, butyric acid, caprylic acid), Pendulum Glucose Control *, PhenylButyrate (link)

You can also increase butyrate by eating enough fiber (fruits and vegetables), type III resistant starch {ref}, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, herbs and herbal teas such as (green) tea {ref}, senna {study}, licorice, ginger {study}, Triphala {ref}; honey, orange juice {ref}, kombucha, coffee, chlorella, butter/ghee, taurine, curcumin, modified citrus pectin, kelp, walnuts {ref}, yacon, carrot, cooled potato, exercise.

I wonder if it might be beneficial to do a one-time 7 day-course of a broad-spectrum antibiotic first and then start with the foods and supplements as mentioned above. Sort of a reset: out with the old, in with the new. 

(*) What specific bacteria help create butyrate?

There are many species of bacteria that either contribute to the butyrate-making process or are responsible for the actual production of butyrate. 

Some of the most common species who are responsible for producing butyrate:

  • Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (belongs to Clostridium leptum cluster)
  • Eubacterium rectale (belongs to Clostridium coccoides cluster)
  • Roseburia spp. (Roseburia faecis, Roseburia inulinivorans, Roseburia intestinalis, and Roseburia hominis)
  • Clostridium butyricum
  • Clostridium beijerinckii
  • Eubacterium spp. (Eubacterium hallii)
  • Anaerostipes spp. (Anaerostipes butyraticus, Anaerostipes caccae, and Anaerostipes hadrus)
  • Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum {study}
Additionally, species of bacteria in the Bifidobacterium genus are known to help break carry out the first steps in fiber digestion, providing molecules to the gut microbiome that the above species can use to make butyrate.

References & Sources


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